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Monday, February 15, 2010

Android 2D ( A Simple Example )

It has been a long time I wanted to go through Android 2D capabilities and see how that works. and after a little bit of reading and researching about the topic, I developed a simple TicTacToe game which I'm gonna share it with you in this article.
The primary purpose of this example is to dig up some basic Android 2D features and get familiar with some game programming principles. Although TicTacToe is not really an interactive game, I think its simplicity will help us to be focused on what matters most which is actually how to do things in Android rather than how to design and develop an efficient game algorithm for a particular game. (I'm gonna use the same technique that has been used in LunarLandar application, which by the way is a pretty good example in this area).
first of all let's have a look at how our application will be looking like:








Despite the fact that TicTacToe is a pretty easy game to develop, Graphic wise I mean, and can be simply done by extending View Class, I have actually used 'SurfaceView', since apparently it's a better option for developing interactive games in Android. the most important point about SurfaceView class is that it uses two buffers, a drawing buffer and a displaying buffer, you are not allowed to draw directly on displaying buffer and if you need to draw something you will have to get the drawing buffer , fill it and post it as display buffer. as API documentation has mentioned there is no guarantee that anything gets preserved in drawing buffer and as a result we always need to draw anything we want to be shown without taking any presumption that something is already there from last drawing operation.
OK... now that we learned some basic facts about how SurfaceView works, let's have a look at my code and see what we have got there :



public class TicTacToeView extends SurfaceView implements SurfaceHolder.Callback, OnTouchListener {

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public TicTacToeView(Context context) {
super(context);
getHolder().addCallback(this);
}

public TicTacToeView(Context context,TicTacToe internalState) {
this(context);
this.tictactoe = internalState;
}

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class MainThread extends Thread {

private SurfaceHolder surfaceHolder;
private boolean runFlag = false;
boolean firstTime = true;

public MainThread(SurfaceHolder surfaceHolder) {
this.surfaceHolder = surfaceHolder;
}

public void setRunning(boolean run) {
this.runFlag = run;
}

@Override
public void run() {
Canvas c;

while (this.runFlag) {

if(firstTime){
drawLines();
firstTime = false;
continue;
}

c = null;
try {

c = this.surfaceHolder.lockCanvas(null);
synchronized (this.surfaceHolder) {
doDraw(c);
updateScores(c);
}
} finally {

if (c != null) {
this.surfaceHolder.unlockCanvasAndPost(c);

}
}
}
}

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}

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}

The first thing we're gonna need in any game is a Game Thread, The idea here is to constantly call a series of methods which are responsible to update some states and draw something based on those states. as I said before when you are dealing with SurfaceView you need to draw into the draw buffer and then post it on the surface, It can be done by calling lockCanvas() and unlockCanvasAndPost() methods of SurfaceHolder class, you can get the associated SurfaceHolder instance of your SurfaceView by calling getHolder() method. as you can see in the above code I have implemented the SurfaceHolder.Callback interface; this interface provides 3 callback methods for monitoring the life-cycle of the SurfaceView, here is my implementation of these methods:



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@Override
public void surfaceCreated(SurfaceHolder holder) {

_thread = new MainThread(getHolder());

if(tictactoe == null)
this.tictactoe = new TicTacToe(new TicTacToeHandler(),false);
else
_thread.firstTime = false;

Resources resources = getContext().getResources();

this.background = BitmapFactory.decodeResource(resources, R.drawable.background);
this.X_Player = BitmapFactory.decodeResource(resources, R.drawable.x_pic);
this.O_Player = BitmapFactory.decodeResource(resources, R.drawable.o_pic);


Rect rect = holder.getSurfaceFrame();
this.gameTable_height = rect.height()-56;
this.gameTable_sY = 0;
this.gameTable_width = rect.width();
this.scoreBox_Height = 50;
this.scoreBox_Width = rect.width();
this.scoreBox_sY = rect.height()-this.scoreBox_Height;
this.squares = new Rect[9];

final int square_Width = (int)(gameTable_width-(TABLE_BORDER*4))/3;
final int square_Height = (int)(gameTable_height-(TABLE_BORDER*4))/3;

for(int i=0;i<9;i++){
int row = i%3;
int column = i/3;
int left = ((row+1)*TABLE_BORDER)+(square_Width*row);
int top = ((column+1)*TABLE_BORDER)+(square_Height*column);
this.squares[i] = new Rect(left,top,left+square_Width,top+square_Height);

}

this.tablePaint.setStyle(Style.STROKE);

this.tablePaint.setShader(new LinearGradient(0, 0, this.gameTable_height,
this.gameTable_width,
0xFF000000,
0xFF343434,
TileMode.MIRROR));
this.tablePaint.setStrokeWidth(TABLE_BORDER);
this.tablePaint.setAlpha(0xCC);

this.boxPaint.setStyle(Style.STROKE);
this.boxPaint.setStrokeWidth(BOX_BORDER);
this.boxPaint.setColor(0xFFA90000);

this.textPaint.setColor(0xFF000000);
this.textPaint.setTextAlign(Align.CENTER);
this.textPaint.setTextSize(14);
this.textPaint.setTypeface(Typeface.createFromAsset(getContext().getResources().getAssets(),"HARLOWSI.TTF"));

this.contentPaint.setAlpha(0xDF);

_thread.setRunning(true);
_thread.start();
setOnTouchListener(this);

}

@Override
public void surfaceDestroyed(SurfaceHolder holder) {

boolean retry = true;
_thread.setRunning(false);
while (retry) {
try {
_thread.join();
retry = false;
} catch (InterruptedException e) {

}
}
}


@Override
public void surfaceChanged(SurfaceHolder holder, int format, int width,int height) {
}
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in surfaceCreated() method I have initialized some variables and objects such as an instance of TicTacToe class (which will actually take care of game's logic and rules), background Image , cross and circle images and Paint objects that all will be used later to draw the game, here is also a good place to create and start our main thread. then we will kill the main thread in surfaceDestroyed() method to make sure no one's gonna make an attempt to draw anything on the surface after it has been destroyed.
now that we have got anything initialized and the main thread running let's see what is happening in each loop of our thread, as you saw in the first chunk of code above we are actually calling 2 methods each time, doDraw() and updateScores() :



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public void doDraw(Canvas canvas) {

canvas.drawBitmap(this.background, 0, 0, null);
drawTable(canvas);

if(this.draw && Xs[0] == Xs[1] && Ys[0] == Ys[1]){
CheckContent();
}
drawContent(canvas);

}

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private void updateScores(Canvas canvas){

final int halfBorder = (int)BOX_BORDER/2;
final Paint paint = textPaint;

Rect rect = new Rect(halfBorder,
this.scoreBox_sY-halfBorder,
this.scoreBox_Width-halfBorder,
(this.scoreBox_sY-halfBorder)+this.scoreBox_Height);
RectF rectf = new RectF(rect);


canvas.drawRoundRect(rectf, 15, 15, this.boxPaint);

canvas.drawText("Your Score : "+this.tictactoe.getYourScore(), 65,this.scoreBox_sY+25,paint);
canvas.drawText("Computer's Score : "+this.tictactoe.getOpponentScore(), 15+(this.scoreBox_Width/3)*2,this.scoreBox_sY+25,paint);

}


private void drawTable(Canvas canvas){

final Paint paint = this.tablePaint;
final float border = TABLE_BORDER;

final int cellHeight = (int)(this.gameTable_height-(2*border))/3;
final int cellWidth = (int)(this.gameTable_width-(2*border))/3;

final float table_eX = this.gameTable_width-border;
final float table_eY = this.gameTable_height-border;

canvas.drawLine(this.gameTable_sY+border, cellHeight+border, table_eX, cellHeight+border, paint);
canvas.drawLine(this.gameTable_sY+border, (cellHeight*2)+border, table_eX, (cellHeight*2)+border, paint);

canvas.drawLine(cellWidth+border, border, cellWidth+border, table_eY, paint);
canvas.drawLine((cellWidth*2)+border, border, (cellWidth*2)+border, table_eY, paint);


paint.setPathEffect(new CornerPathEffect(20));
canvas.drawRect(border/2, border/2, this.gameTable_width-(border/2),
this.gameTable_height-(border/2),
paint);

paint.setPathEffect(null);
}


private void CheckContent(){

for(int i=0;i<9;i++){
if(this.squares[i].contains(Xs[1], Ys[1])){
this.tictactoe.move_Request(i);

this.draw = false;
return;
}
}
}


private void drawContent(Canvas canvas){


for(int i=0;i<9;i++){
int squareContent = this.tictactoe.getContent(i);
if(squareContent == TicTacToe.X_PLAYER)
canvas.drawBitmap(this.X_Player,null,this.squares[i], this.contentPaint);
else if(squareContent == TicTacToe.O_PLAYER)
canvas.drawBitmap(this.O_Player,null,this.squares[i], this.contentPaint);

}
}

@Override
public boolean onTouch(View v, MotionEvent event) {

if(event.getAction() == MotionEvent.ACTION_DOWN){
this.Xs[0] = (int)event.getX();
this.Ys[0] = (int)event.getY();
}
else if(event.getAction() == MotionEvent.ACTION_UP){
this.Xs[1] = (int)event.getX();
this.Ys[1] = (int)event.getY();

this.draw = true;
}

return true;
}
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The Last thing I would like to handle is the ability to keep the state of the game when user flips the phone and goes to landscape mode or vice versa, so we are gonna have to save current state of the game just before application get killed and then retrieve that state later when the activity get started again which mean our activity class will be something like this:



public class TicTacToeActivity extends Activity{

private TicTacToeView view;

@Override
public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);
requestWindowFeature(Window.FEATURE_NO_TITLE);

TicTacToe oldTTT = (TicTacToe)getLastNonConfigurationInstance();
if(oldTTT != null)
this.view = new TicTacToeView(this, oldTTT);
else
this.view = new TicTacToeView(this);

setContentView(this.view);
}

@Override
public Object onRetainNonConfigurationInstance(){
return this.view.getInternalState();
}

}

getInternalState() method returns the associated TicTacToe object of the TicTacToeView, as I said before TicTacToe class is just a simple class that holds the game matrix and players' scores and actually that's all we need to save and retrieve each time the configuration gets changed in this example.
I also though it would be interesting to start the game with some sort of animation so I wrote a piece of code to have the game table being drawn when you start the application, something like this I mean :








and here is the code that generates this animation:



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public void run(){
final int length = lines.length;
for(int i=0;i<length;i++)
drawLine(i);
}

private void drawLine(int index){

final Line line = this.lines[index];

final float addingPortion_X = ((line.eX - line.sX) / DRAW_PER_LINE);
final float addingPortion_Y = ((line.eY - line.sY) / DRAW_PER_LINE);

for(int i=0;i<DRAW_PER_LINE;i++){

Canvas canvas = this.holder.lockCanvas(null);
canvas.drawBitmap(background, 0, 0, null);
for(int j=0;j<index;j++)
canvas.drawLine(this.lines[j].sX,
this.lines[j].sY,
this.lines[j].eX,
this.lines[j].eY,
this.paint);

canvas.drawLine(line.sX,
line.sY,
line.sX+(addingPortion_X*(i+1)),
line.sY+(addingPortion_Y*(i+1)),
this.paint);

this.holder.unlockCanvasAndPost(canvas);

}

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I'm not sure if it's the best way to do this but it works just like i want it to work ;). (since just calling lockCanvas() and unlockCanvasAndPost() alone takes something around 200ms on my emulator - which is of course ridiculous but i have no idea why! - I didn't need to add any delay but on real device it will probably be needed to have some delay).

6 comments:

leslie said...

Thank you!
This post is very helpfull.
Don't you wanna make downloadable the full source?

Thanks,
leslie

Amir said...

actually I have been thinking about uploading full source codes, but the thing is
all these posts here reflect my learning experience with Android and most of the time
the real source code is pretty messy and unorganized...
but anyway I might put some time to organize the source codes and upload them sometimes later.

Anonymous said...

Hi Amir,

Thank you for this tutorial, it is really helpful.

Can you please send the source code as it (no matter if it is messy and unorganized) to zivotno@hotmail.com

I need it for my student courses.

Thank you very much....

Crossbones said...

I found it very informative :)

Anonymous said...

Thanks amir....New to Android Gaming and this was very useful...

Anonymous said...

keep it up, I'll keep reading and playing with these awesome tutorials